OK In Health - Environmental Care

Toxic shrimp cocktail, anyone? - August 2017

Written by: Lori Petryk, RD, MSc, & David Hadley MD

By Lori Petryk

Lori Petryk

"All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others." So claimed Napoleon the pig in George Orwell's classic novel Animal Farm. Napoleon could well have been talking about the differences between farmed and wild-caught shrimp.

Much like other farming practices, traditional aquaculture goes back thousands of years. Early shrimp farmers developed a balanced ecosystem where small numbers of shrimp coexisted in ecological harmony with other fish species. This type of early fish farming could yield about 200 kilograms of shrimp per acre in a good year. Today, high global demand for shrimp has led to the conversion of rice fields, salt beds and fishponds for industrial shrimp farms. According to a report by the U.S. environmental organization Food & Water Watch, today's corporate-run shrimp operations can produce more than 40,000 kilograms per acre. That's 200 times more shrimp per acre than the small traditional farms produced. As with many other industrial animal-farming operations, our ability to purchase this inexpensive food comes with hidden costs to our health and the environment.

Most industrial-scale shrimp producers rely on large doses of antibiotics and pesticides to reduce diseases and parasites in overcrowded shrimp pools. Although it is illegal for North American shrimp farmers to use antibiotics to control disease, it is not illegal in many other parts of the world. Most shrimp found in restaurants and grocery stores is mass-produced by numerous overseas suppliers. We rarely know where the shrimp we are eating has been farmed. The result is that we ingest an invisible shrimp cocktail of chemicals.

Over the past 10 years, a number of salmonella outbreaks have been linked to antibiotic-resistant salmonella from shrimp farms in Asia. As a result, Thailand has banned the use of unsafe antibiotics in aquaculture. Has this solved the problem of imported toxic shrimp? An investigation on shrimp farming, conducted by students from UBC's Graduate School of Journalism,  found that as recently as October 2010, shipments of shrimp from Thailand were turned away at the Canadian border for containing nitrofuran, an antibiotic shown in animal studies to have carcinogenic properties. The UBC investigation points out that the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) only has adequate resources to inspect five per cent of imported shrimp.

The news is not all bad, though. According to David Suzuki's Sustainable Seafood Guide, good choices for shrimp include wild spot prawns caught in Canadian Pacific waters. Spot prawns are trapped, which minimizes the environmental damage we see with methods like net fishing, where many other marine animals are caught and killed along with the intended prawn catch. Because spot prawns are wild, there is little worry that they will be contaminated with antibiotics. And because they are low on the food chain, they contain little, if any, mercury and are safe enough even for pregnant women to enjoy two to three times a week.

 

What about cholesterol?

Long before we worried about possible environmental toxins in shrimp, people were concerned about the high cholesterol content of some shellfish. Cholesterol, a type of fat made in the liver of all animals, has important cellular functions and is a key component in our bodies' formation of steroids such as testosterone and vitamin D. This makes it essential

for all animal life. But when excess cholesterol builds up in blood vessels over years, it can restrict blood flow to such critical organs as the heart and brain and increase the risk of heart attacks or strokes.

Although it was once believed that diets high in cholesterol contributed to this risk, it is now clear that our blood cholesterol levels are more affected by the amount and type of fat we consume, especially trans- and saturated fats, than the amount of cholesterol we eat.

A healthy diet can include some cholesterol-containing foods. In this context, spot prawns caught in the Canadian Pacific by trap, with their low-fat, high-protein and delicious taste, are an excellent choice that fits well into a healthy diet. Remember, moderation is still key, so rather than reaching for an extra serving of prawns, add an extra scoop of veggies to your plate. Your health and our oceans will be thankful for it!

 

Written by: Lori Petryk, RD, MSc, & David Hadley MD

Lori Petryk can be seen weekly hosting "Good for You, Good for Our Earth", a nutrition and sustainable food segment on SHAW TV. See www.goodforyouandearth.com.

Dr. David Hadley is an emergency physician in Calgary, Alberta.




Lori  PetrykLori 's Bio: Registered Dietitian A registered dietitian with a master’s degree in nutrition, Lori develops sound nutritional lifestyle programs that combine her passions for healthy eating and sustainable living through worksite wellness initiatives for both public and private industry, as well as individual clients. Lori also teaches public health at the Boucher Institute of Naturopathic Medicine, and acts as an Educational Leader for the BC Cancer Agency's Prevention Program. Lori enjoys working with media to educate the public, and has appeared on CTV News Vancouver and Shaw Television’s Urban Rush. - Lori Petryk Website


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Description: Roasting caramelizes the sugars and brings out the sweetness of the tender chunks of butternut squash that punctuate this golden yellow polenta casserole. It is finished off with the herbal overtones of butter-browned sage. We like this squash because it's easier to peel and cut compared with some squash. Marked by a tan exterior, the interior is a bright, rich orange. The butternut's flesh is less "stringy" than many squash making it perfect for purees and efficient cubes.

¦Butternut squash contains many vital poly-phenolic anti-oxidants and vitamins. Similar to other cucurbitaceae members, it is very low in calories; provides just 45 cal per 100 g. It contains no saturated fats or cholesterol; but is rich source of dietary fiber and phyto-nutrients. Squash is one of the common vegetable that is often recommended by dieticians in the cholesterol controlling and weight reduction programs.

¦It has more vitamin A than that in pumpkin. At 10630 IU per 100 g, it is perhaps the single vegetable source in the cucurbitaceae family with highest levels of vitamin-A, providing about 354% of RDA. Vitamin A is a powerful natural anti-oxidant and is required by body for maintaining the integrity of skin and mucus membranes. It is also an essential vitamin for vision. Research studies suggest that natural foods rich in vitamin A helps body protect against lung and oral cavity cancers.

¦Furthermore, butternut squash has plentiful of natural poly-phenolic flavonoid compounds like a and ß-carotenes, cryptoxanthin-ß, and lutein. These compounds convert to vitamin A inside the body and deliver same protective functions of vitamin A on the body.

¦It is rich in B-complex group of vitamins like folates, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine), thiamin, and pantothenic acid.

¦It has similar mineral profile as pumpkin, containing adequate levels of minerals like iron, zinc, copper, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus.

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