|OK In Health - Science Corner|
Wild Salmon Virus in BC - January 2012
Virus is another sign of failure to protect wild salmon
In 2007 and 2008, a virus wiped out millions of salmon on fish farms in Chile, slamming the country’s aquaculture industry with $2 billion in losses, farm and processing-plant closures, and layoffs of 2,000 workers. Now that same virus, infectious salmon anemia, has been found in wild salmon from B.C.’s Rivers Inlet.
The virus normally affects Atlantic salmon, which is what most salmon farms on B.C.’s coast raise, but it can spread and mutate quickly. Scientists confirm that the virus found in the sockeye salmon from River’s Inlet was the European strain, which means it almost certainly came from a fish farm. We don’t yet know what its effect on Pacific sockeye salmon will be, but it could be catastrophic, especially considering all the other threats B.C.’s wild salmon are facing. There is no vaccine or treatment for infectious salmon anemia (which does not affect humans).
Salmon are more than just a commodity; they are an integral part of West Coast ecosystems and culture. They provide food for marine predators and bears, eagles, and other animals along the rivers and lakes where they spawn. The nitrogen and other nutrients they bring from the ocean are spread to the coastal forests by animals that feed on the fish. Salmon also provide a healthy source of nutrition for people and have been an important element of First Nations cultures for many generations. Losing them would be devastating to local economies and would have a profound impact on coastal ecosystems.
Infectious salmon anemia is just the latest in a list of threats identified during the Cohen Commission of Inquiry into the Decline of Sockeye Salmon in the Fraser River. It’s also one of several that have been linked to open net-pen fish farms. The problem of declining salmon populations is obviously bigger than the sum of its threats. Overfishing, habitat destruction, pollution, and fish farms are all issues that can only be dealt with by addressing the larger structural challenges that plague fisheries management in Canada.
The Cohen Commission is wrapping up its hearings and will report to government at the end of June 2012. The David Suzuki Foundation, as part of the Conservation Coalition represented by Ecojustice, submitted recommendations on October 17. One of the coalition’s main conclusions was that we can’t protect wild salmon until we change the way government and Fisheries and Oceans Canada operate. To begin, Fisheries and Oceans is charged with promoting the fish-farming industry, which is absurd. It should focus on its primary mandate of using strong science and monitoring and enforcement to conserve fish.
Canada has a strong conservation tool with its Wild Salmon Policy. But even though it was released in 2005, it has yet to be implemented. Without the policy, and with conflicting mandates and budget cutbacks, the DFO has not been able to do its job properly. The government should restore the independence and transparency of science by re-establishing an independent fisheries research board. Instead of cutting budgets, it should provide money and resources to monitor and enforce regulations to protect fish and habitat. It could start by putting money now used to promote industry into science and conservation.
The government should also address major threats to wild salmon by getting open net-cage salmon farms off wild salmon migration routes and making sure endangered stocks are not overfished. But that’s just a start. We need to move from open net-pen fish farming to closed-containment systems that eliminate interaction between farmed and wild salmon. The government should also do more to confront climate change, which will have an impact on salmon and all marine species.
The problems may seem overwhelming, but with strong policies and regulations, adequate resources, and a Fisheries and Oceans department focused on protecting fish, we can start to address them. Justice Bruce Cohen has heard from many people and groups, and we’re confident that his report will be thorough. Of course, we hope and expect that he will include the recommendations of the Conservation Coalition as well as other environmental groups, First Nations, and all stakeholders who care about the survival of wild Pacific salmon. It will then be up to the government to act quickly on the recommendations. The salmon depend on it. And we depend on the salmon.
David's Bio: Dr. David Suzuki is a scientist, broadcaster, author, and chair of the David Suzuki Foundation.
He is Companion to the Order of Canada and a recipient of UNESCO's Kalinga Prize for science, the United Nations Environment Program medal, the 2009 Right Livelihood Award, and Global 500. Dr. Suzuki is Professor Emeritus at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver and holds 24 honorary degrees from universities around the world. He is familiar to television audiences as host of the long-running CBC television program The Nature of Things, and to radio audiences as the original host of CBC Radio's Quirks and Quarks, as well as the acclaimed series It's a Matter of Survival and From Naked Ape to Superspecies. His written work includes more than 47 books. Dr. Suzuki lives with his wife, Dr. Tara Cullis, and family in Vancouver, B.C. - David Suzuki Website
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Description: Chocolate has had some good press recently for its health benefits, but many people seem confused as to what types of chocolate are good for them and why. Reports on the antioxidant potential of chocolate have been coming out for the past few years. Cornell University published a study in late 2003 that tested pure coca powder for amounts of phenolic phytochemicals or flavonoids that fight free radicals in the body. The two flavonoids measured were gallic acid equivalents (GAE) and epicatichin equivalents (ECE). A single serving of coca delivered 611mg of GAE and 564mg ECE, twice the number found in a glass of red wine. While the actual coca or cacao found in chocolate is good for you, it is important to look at the ingredients. Milk chocolate usually only contains 10% coca solids, filling up the rest of the bar with things that might not be so good for you like sugar, dairy, and preservatives. Anything labeled dark chocolate must contain a minimum of 35% coca solids, but there are plenty of companies that produce premium chocolates that reach from 70-80%. At first this chocolate may taste bitter, but once you try it, you will never go back! As food writer and chef Jennifer Harvey Lang said: “dark is to milk chocolate what Dom Perignon is to Dr. Pepper.” Why is something that is so good for you so addictive? I haven’t met a lot of people with uncontrollable broccoli cravings. Chocolate has another interesting component called phenylethylamine (PEA), which is a chemical that speeds up the flow of information between nerve cells: dopamine and norepinephrine, chemical cousins of amphetamines. Dopamine makes us feel good and norepinephrine stimulates the production of adrenaline, making our heartbeat faster. This is the same combination that goes coursing through our bodies when we meet someone new and the “chemistry is right”. We get that same chemistry from chocolate. The Aztecs believed that cacao stimulated desire, and chocolate has long been a favourite gift for lovers for exactly this reason.